First-year Writing and Integrated Writing: What’s the Connection?

About three-quarters of Georgetown students take a first-year writing course (another quarter test out through AP or International Baccalaureate exams), so you can assume that most of your students have taken a course designed to help them think strategically about writing and prepare them to write in varied genres and styles. Georgetown’s first-year writing course, WRIT015: Writing and Culture Seminar, emphasizes four core ideas about writing:


We approach writing as a matter of critical thinking and problem solving, and we aim to prepare students to write in any context and about any content. In our courses, students practice developing a piece of writing from initial ideas through research, planning, and revision. We also emphasize thinking about the purpose, audience, and context for writing, so students learn to make smart choices about how to address different situations.

Because WRIT015 faculty are trained in the Humanities and/or Writing Studies, we’re not experts in writing in your discipline. Faculty with expertise in the disciplines teach students how people in their fields organize and present arguments, how to use and cite evidence, and the particular genres they use.  Faculty have created online guides to writing in many disciplines. We’ve posted links to many of these here.

As you teach your students about how to write in your field, you can build on what students learned in WRIT015 in several ways:

Finally, remember that we’re here to help. We’re happy to chat with you about your course or assignments, develop workshops for faculty in your program, and prepare in-class workshops for your students.

Have a great semester!

Sherry Linkon
Director, Georgetown University Writing Program

Classroom Tips: Framing Discussions about Writing

Whether you are teaching a first-year writing course, a writing-intensive seminar, or any course that requires students to write, you can help students engage with course content and improve their writing by framing classroom discussions around writing. These activities can take as much time as you want: you can assign them for homework, dedicate 5 minutes of class discussion, or build an entire class around any of these tasks.

Discuss assigned readings as writers

Choose one or more of these questions to initiate class discussion or wrap up a conversation about a text.

  • Who is the intended audience? How do you know?
  • What is the purpose of the text? What is it trying to accomplish?
  • What is the context for this text? How might readers encounter this text?
  • What conventions shape this text?
  • How is the text similar to other texts assigned in this course? How is this text similar to types of writing you have been assigned?
  • How does the writer use evidence?  
  • What is the writer’s style?
  • What does this writer do that you might imitate? In what context?

Ask students to generate genre conventions for an assignment

To prepare students for an assignment, help them understand the conventions of the assigned genre, such as a book review, lab report, or a research paper in your discipline, by asking them to characterize the range of possibilities that shape that genre.

Ask students to read 3-4 examples of the kind of text you would like them to write. You might ask students to review texts already assigned in the course, or you can give published/aspirational models or student examples or a mix of both. Have students work in pairs or small groups to describe what the texts share in common (how the writers use evidence, how the text is organized and structured, what citation style is used, etc). Ask students to report back to the class on what genre conventions they discovered. As a whole class, and with instructor input, develop a list of conventions for the genre assigned.

Focus on one writing issue at a time

When designing a writing assignment, identify the one or two things you want your students to learn.

Bring in a model example, and ask students to apply the moves the writer makes in the model example to their own writing. For instance, if you want students to improve how they use evidence, bring in a passage from a text that uses evidence well. Ask students to characterize how the writer uses evidence, and then give students 10 minutes to look at a passage in their drafts and make changes based on how the model writer uses evidence.

Have students work collaboratively to practice developing disciplinary arguments

From John Bean’s book Engaging Ideas, this activity helps students practice ways of thinking and arguing in your discipline. You might do this activity to illustrate disciplinary practices or to help students prepare for a writing assignment.

Provide students with a question from your discipline in which there is no single right answer, and ask students to work together to arrive at an answer to the question. Student groups share their work with the whole class, while the instructor provides commentary on the limits and possibilities of the responses, as well as how experts might address the question.

Compare writing styles

Help students understand how audience shapes the presentation of evidence.

Find a newspaper article that addresses an issue or question related to your subject or discipline. Ask students to compare the style, structure, and use of evidence in the article to an essay assigned for your course. Ask students to consider how the audience of each piece shapes the writer’s moves.

Looking for ways to get your students to write more? Check out our Incorporating Low Stakes Writing Resource Page for ideas on how to incorporate quick writing activities during class or for homework.

-Karen Shaup

Three Myths About the Writing Center

In the four years I’ve been the Director of the Writing Center, I’ve been delighted to work with faculty members from every school and every discipline on the main campus. But I’ve also learned that some faculty keep a firm hold on a number of misconceptions – myths, really– about the Writing Center. The best way to dispel these myths would be to visit us on the second floor of Lauinger Library (217A Lau), next door to The Midnight Mug, and I invite all to do so!

But since you might not have time for a visit, here’s an attempt to clear up three common myths:

Myth 1: It’s an editing service. No, our tutors don’t edit or proofread papers for fellow students. Yes, we will help a student improve her own editing and proofreading skills, enabling her to become a better editor. Our primary aim is always to help students develop as writers – not just to help them improve a particular essay. That’s why we’re happy to help students at any stage of the writing process, from brainstorming to revision and proofreading. Tutors can offer advice on thesis development, use of evidence, organization, flow, sentence structure, grammar, and more.

Myth 2: It’s the blind leading the blind. We’re staffed with highly trained undergraduate and graduate students. Every year we select about a dozen new undergraduate tutors from roughly 80 to 100 applicants, almost all of whom have been nominated by professors. Those selected take a rigorous 3-credit fall course, “Approaches to Teaching English Composition.” As for graduate students, we look for those with extensive experience in respected Writing Centers, and before they can begin, new graduate tutors go through our own rigorous training. What’s more, tutors stay on for at least two years – usually more – so most of our 40 current tutors have extensive experience. Finally, professional development is an ongoing process for all tutors.

Myth 3:  It’s fine for College humanities courses, but not much else. First off, we recruit tutors from every undergraduate school, and current tutors represent more than 20 different majors, including biology, biochemistry, STIA, International Political Economy, Accounting, Finance, marketing, Economics, Linguistics, and computer science. Before signing up for an appointment, a student can read about tutors and see which tutors match their own areas of interest.  What’s more, I train every tutor to work across disciplines – in the new tutor training course and through ongoing staff development. A few of our 40 tutors are pictured above. For the full staff with bios, visit our Writing Center Website.

–David Lipscomb


Integrating Research and Argument Across the Major

As Director of the Georgetown University Writing Program, I get to spend a lot of time talking with faculty across campus about their students’ writing and how their programs help students learn to write and think like experts in the field. In most disciplines, we want students to learn to make arguments, often using sources and eventually their own research, whether in a lab, in the field, or in the library. Students also need to learn particular forms and conventions of argument. Psychology majors need to learn how to position a problem in the context of prior research and how to distinguish their findings from their conclusions, while students in the humanities need to learn how to integrate close reading of texts with discussions of theory and a sense of the context. All of this is central to writing, and that’s why research and argument appear in many Georgetown programs’ Integrated Writing plans.

Research and argument are complex processes, and students learn how to do them over time, with models, practice, and feedback. How can programs build that kind of learning into the major? A new resource on the Writing website offers a model.

In the American Studies Program, Professor Erika Seamon has an opportunity that few of us get: she teaches both the first two courses in the major, which introduce core concepts and analytical strategies, and the last two, in which students research and write a senior thesis. This bookended structure lets her build continuity into the major. She introduces a few key ideas about how to make and support an argument from the beginning, and students have multiple opportunities to practice crafting research questions, framing thesis statements, and identifying the reasons and evidence that support the claims made in course readings and in their own arguments.  Seamon reinforces these strategies with tools that scaffold the process, from the research questions they pose in response to daily readings to the analysis maps they create as they plan their papers. With such a strong foundation, students come into their senior thesis work well-prepared to take on the larger and more complex challenge of doing original research.

The models Seamon has developed could help many students learn how to approach research and argument. For faculty, her attention to integrating these themes across her sophomore- and senior-level courses provides a model for programs that are looking for ways to make their expectations for and practices of writing more visible and consistent across the major. To learn more, check out Seamon’s discussion of Integrating Writing Across Courses: The American Studies Model.

–Sherry Linkon

The “Content” Question in Composition: Three Take-aways

This fall, the Georgetown Writing Program’s “Reading Writing Group” has been looking at different approaches to teaching first-year writing, focusing especially on how content in a first-year composition courses helps—or impedes—in facilitating successful transfer of writing knowledge.

During our September meeting, we discussed Kathleen Blake Yancey, Liane Robertson, and Kara Taczak’s “Teaching for Transfer (TFT) and the Role of Content in Composition” (2014). This book chapter argues that content in first-year writing is not merely an add-on or side note, but rather a “window or fulcrum through which students learn about writing and how to write.”

TFT usually involves asking students to study key terms and engage in semester-long metacognitive reflective writing. This dynamic interplay between learning new vocabulary and practicing self-awareness encourages students to produce their own theory of writing by the end of a course. Yancey, Robertson, and Taczak argue that these interwoven processes of developing writing expertise are critical in students’ development of a “writing passport” that they can take to future courses and sites of writing. Three main themes emerged from our discussion.

Deciding what my writing course will be about

In our discussion of “Teaching for Transfer (TFT) and the Role of Content in Composition,” we considered specifically the question of how instructors communicate to students what our courses are fundamentally “about.” For instance, how might a “media and culture” first-year writing course pitch to students—even from a syllabus alone—that this is first and foremost a course about how media functions rather than an opportunity to develop a self-aware knowledge-base and set of practices to take to future sites.

Introducing the field of Writing Studies in First-Year Writing classes?

The TFT approach offers an interesting contrast to the Writing about Writing approach (WAW), in which the content of the course serves to introduce students to the discipline of Writing Studies. Both TFT and WAW take as their central goal the successful transfer of knowledge from one writing situation to the next, but WAW specifically emphasizes how students can use existing scholarship in writing studies to “(re)construct knowledge about writing, writers, writing processes, discourse, textuality, and literacy” (Doug Downs). The WAW method closely aligns course content with its disciplinary home in writing studies.

Embracing the novice mindset

Our group kept coming back to the need for instructors to advocate for the usefulness of “a novice mindset.” For instance, Sommers and Saltz’s longitudinal study, published in 2004, argues that undergraduate writers who accept the status of a beginner, while also aiming to see beyond the scope of a one-semester class, tend to make the most writing progress in sites beyond first-year writing.

Within the study, one student who strongly identified as “a writer” found it exceedingly difficult to take on a novice mindset because that was in direct conflict with both her present identity and future aspirations. A separate student in the study, who did not identify strongly as a writer, but rather as an actuarial scientist, found it easier to be comfortable with, and aware of, his novice mindset. In turn, his specific learning outcomes tended to be more meaningful and transferable to other sites. The authors suggest that students who accept the novice mindset would need to see this as a “non-threatening step toward improving” writing.

The TFT method continues to speak to many of our central concerns in how to make writing courses at Georgetown a bedrock for our students’ future writing lives. And this article in particular led us to ask of our ourselves: How do we balance student excitement about writing with the need to make each new assignment a challenge? How can we infuse a useful and continual self-awareness into our students’ writing lives?

–Phil Sandick


3 Ideas for Thinking About Multimodal Writing: Notes from the Spring Learning Community

Last semester, we published a series of posts about multimodal writing assignments – assignments that ask students to compose not only with words, but also with other modes like images, sound, or video. (You may know it as “digital writing;” the terms are often used relatively interchangeably.)  Alongside this blog series, the Writing Program (in partnership with CNDLS) also ran a faculty Learning Community focused on the design and implementation of such writing in the classroom – which I had the pleasure of facilitating.

Our group met monthly throughout the semester, and covered a range of questions related to using digital/multimodal writing in the classroom. With participants coming from a wide range of disciplines both within and beyond the Humanities, our conversations showcased a similar range of ways to think about using this non-traditional but increasingly relevant writing style to reach our course objectives. I wrote about these conversations, and about the assignments that came out of them, for The Prospect over the summer – you can read that piece here. For our blog, I’ve pulled out three of the ideas that stuck with me the most, and which I think are particularly helpful for anyone considering adding multimodal writing to their course.

➤ Multimodal assignments don’t need to be high-stakes. There’s a tendency to think of multimodal writing solely in terms of major projects, but it can be a great tool for low-stakes writing as well. Ask students to map out their research using a tool like MindMup, on the way to drafting a traditional paper. Have them respond to readings by assembling a quick image essay. A friend of mine even has students use reaction GIFs as a tool in peer review. Digital writing assignments don’t have to be long or weighty to be useful.

➤ It’s never too early to think about scaffolding. We spent a lot of time talking and thinking about how to set the stage for multimodal writing assignments, and how to support students through the writing process. Since these assignments often ask students to use new tools or compose in new forms, building in time to explain expectations and help pace the work is crucial. Don’t wait til the assignment sheet is set in stone to begin thinking about this – sketch a timeline for how you’ll roll out the assignment as you design the prompt. And consider setting multiple deadlines for different parts of the process: for example, one for initial brainstorming; one for a rough draft; and one for the final

➤ There are different degrees of freedom, and each has its place. Some people in our group favored a hands-off approach – giving students a topic and end goal for the assignment, and letting them choose the form that writing took: website, photo essay, Prezi. Others started with the form and platform – a website with Weebly, a brochure with InDesign – and tailored the shape of the assignment to match. Both approaches offer benefits as well as limits. Freedom of format can overwhelm students, and can require more class time to explore possible options. Mandating a structure and platform pushes students into a single perspective, and can bring pre-existing expectations that aren’t necessarily in line with the actual assignment’s goals. Think carefully about what you want an assignment to achieve, and what degree of freedom will best enable students to succeed.

If this post has you thinking about what digital writing might look like in your course, I’d love you to join me later this semester for our new workshop, “Bringing Digital Writing into Your Course” – November 29th from 1:00-2:00 in the Lannan Center (4th Floor New North). We’ll be talking about these ideas and more, and you’ll have a chance to do some initial writing + sharing to start the assignment design process. Hope to see you there!


Reading Writing Group – Fall 2018

Join your colleagues this fall for a series of discussions about teaching writing. Each month we will look at a different set of texts (from articles to book chapters to writing textbooks to assignment guidelines) to explore the best practices for teaching writing and teaching for transfer. To access the readings and RSVP, email Phil Sandick at

What’s new?

Welcome to our new and improved website.  We now offer sections for faculty teaching first-year writing and for those whose courses fulfill the Integrated Writing requirement, as well as a variety of resources for all faculty who include writing in their courses. You’ll also find information about Writing Program events, workshops, and news. We’ll update these resources all year,  so check back regularly for new ideas, announcements, and resources.

We hope these resources will inspire you. We’re also offering two Workshops in August to help you plan your fall courses.

A student guide to proofreading and writing in science

Congratulations to Human Science professor Jason Tilan, who together with former GU colleagues J.P. Hyatt and Elisa Bienenstock, has just published an article based on their work on a core Integrated Writing course, Physiological Adaptations. Their essay appears in Advanced in Physiological Education. Check it out!

Here’s the abstract of the essay:

Scientific writing requires a distinct style and tone, whether the writing is intended for an undergraduate assignment or publication in a peer-reviewed journal. From the first to the final draft, scientific writing is an iterative process requiring practice, substantial feedback from peers and instructors, and comprehensive proofreading on the part of the writer. Teaching writing or proofreading is not common in university settings. Here, we present a collection of common undergraduate student writing mistakes and put forth suggestions for corrections as a first step toward proofreading and enhancing readability in subsequent draft versions. Additionally, we propose specific strategies pertaining to word choice, structure, and approach to make products more fluid and focused for an appropriate target audience.

Integrated Writing: Myths and Realities

Myth: Teaching writing takes time away from teaching content
Reality: You can teach writing by using course readings to examine how people in your field produce and share knowledge, make arguments, and use specialized language, formulas, or evidence

Myth: Teaching writing means assigning more papers
Reality: Teaching writing is about quality, not quantity; the focus is on preparing students to write better papers

Myth: Teaching writing means much more grading time
Reality: Providing clear assignments and guidance for writing can make grading more manageable, and students’ papers are likely to be better

Myth: Teaching writing means I have to assign long, formal papers
Reality: Teaching writing can involve short, low-stakes writing assignments, presentations, and multimedia projects

Myth: Teaching writing means I have to read and comment on everything my students write
Reality: You can help students learn about writing is by asking them to review and comment on each other’s work

Myth: Teaching writing means teaching editing and grammar
Reality: Teaching writing means letting students know when their form, style, or approach to argument doesn’t meet the expectations and standards of their audiences

Myth: Our students would write well if only they could get the grammar and mechanics right
Reality: Writers struggle to get the language right when they’re unsure about the content